Thiruvananthapuram: Department of Economics and Statistics (various issues). . 1997. New Delhi In turn, the contribution of the rice crop to the state's income fell from 19 percent in 1984 to 10 percent in 1995. Economic and Political Weekly Background paper no. The Idukki reservoir generates most of the hydroelectric power produced in Kerala. . Figure 5-1). 4, Population and Land Use Study, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram. Organogram. Between 1997 and 1998 the total state expenditure on medical and public health was Rs. . The state economy does, however, experience temporary setbacks during years of large-scale return migration such as 1991 and 1997. The hilly or eastern portion is formed by a section of the Western Ghats. . The midland consists mainly of plain land having natural facilities of drainage via backwaters and canals. thesis. Economic and Political Weekly indicates that conversion of rice land to urban uses is greatest within and near the city. The spatial distribution. 3 It has been clearly established, however, that interregional migration has had a major impact on land use patterns. : The thirteenth district in the sate of Kerala nestles its head on the slopes of western ghats and stretches to the low-lying rice fields bordering Alappuzha district. The area ... midland and lowland parts of Ernakulam district are turned into hotspots. The rail routes travel via Thrissur, Kottayam, Cochin H.T., Alappuzha, and Vallarpadam. . About 45 percent of the rural population and 70 percent of the urban population have access to protected water supplies. ~ enlarge ~ Centre for Management Development The icon of Virgin Mary in this church is credited with many miracles. The local populace prefers to live in single-family housing, and thus significantly more land is required to house the population than in other parts of the country. The district is divided into three parts: lowland, midland, and the highland that consist of seaboard, plains, and hills and forests respectively. M.Phil. Kerala has witnessed major changes in its land use pattern. Kerala's location and altitudinal variations have endowed the state with a wide range of agroecological conditions. [5] Ernakulam has a sex ratio of 1027 females for every 1000 males,[5] and a literacy rate of 95.89%. Kerala has an area of 38,864 square kilometers, roughly the size of Switzerland. thesis. C. S. Sundaresan. ~ enlarge ~ In both of these regions, rice was primarily replaced by coconut, followed by rubber. It had a resident population of 3,105,798 as of 2001, excluding the commuters from neighbouring districts. Roads and highways were originally developed along the ridges, and today the main routes are following this pattern, developing along the ridges, whereas branch routes cut across or run along the valleys. The midland constitutes the undulating to rolling terrain. Thus the state economy has become somewhat dependent on remittances. In 1961 Alappuzha (Alleppey) District ranked first among all the districts in urbanization—7.79 percent of its total area was classified as urban. St. George Orthodox Syrian Church at Kadamattam near Muvattupuzha is very old and was founded by Mar Abo Syrian Metropolitan in the 5th century A.D. The first method involves planting coconut saplings on the bunds (embankments) of the rice fields. Its headquarters are located at Kakkanad. M.Phil. The study warrants the imminent need for corrective Photocopy. Jawaharlal Nehru University The soil varies widely in depth and texture. The altitude of the highlands is about 300 m. The Periyar River, Kerala's longest, flows through all the taluks except Muvattupuzha. The Neyyar and Karamana river basins lies between 80 15’ to Kerala's major industries are dumping an estimated 500,000 cubic meters of effluents containing a variety of pollutants into the rivers of Kerala every day. By examining six sites ranging from agricultural to intensely urban to areas in transition, the multinational study panel asks how population growth and consumption directly cause land-use change, and explore the general nature of the forces driving the transformations. Agricole Publishing Academy Here, rolling hills and shallow valleys fill a gentler landscape than the highlands. 41 of them flow westward and 3 eastward. On the other hand, land use within the urban centers undergoes various changes. An earlier analysis by Unni (1983) of the factors responsible for the shift from rice to coconut cultivation during the 1960s and 1970s revealed that rice prices had fluctuated during that period while coconut prices increased consistently. Kerala's Agricultural Performance: Differential Trends and Determinants of Growth. Findings and Observations of the Tri-Academy Project, 7. Rubber is the most cultivated plantation crop in the district and the district is the second-largest producer of rubber in the state behind Kottayam. Thriuvananathapuram Table 5-10). Muvattupuzha and Kothamangalam taluks, which were initially parts of the Kottayam district and constitute the highlands. Thiruvananthapuram View our suggested citation for this chapter. The lowland region, ranging from nearly level to gently sloping, is a strip of land running along the coast bordering the Arabian Sea, and it occupies approximately 10 per-. SOURCE: Government of Kerala. the coastal waters at Kochi (formerly Cochin) and Veli (Pillai et al., 1994). Furthermore, the extensive marginal land brought under cultivation at this time was not suited for rice cultivation. The tax on rice land was 20 percent of gross income, on land cultivating coconuts 1.5 percent, and on land used for rubber cultivation 2 percent (Narayanan, 1994). The Ernakulam Junction, Ernakulam Town and Aluva are the major stations. The region receives an annual rainfall of about 3500mm. Moreover, Kerala displays a unique rural–urban continuum. English is widely used, mostly in business circles. Working Paper 116. The hills and upland soils, composed of laterite and laterite-derived materials are deep, well-drained loams and clays with a fairly high gravel content. Pollution attributed to fertilizer and pesticide residues is reported in the Alappuzha-Kottayam area, and the algal blooms observed in rice fields are possibly associated with an increase in nitrate levels (Mary Kutty, 1996). As noted, Kerala has experienced a drastic decline in the area used to cultivate rice, from approximately 29 percent of total cropped area in 1974 to 15 percent in 1997. 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Of 45–172 days that naturally drain water via backwaters and canals first method involves planting coconut saplings `` most ''! ( GIS ) Science Studies, Thiruvananthapuram wetlands, garden, and Veli ( Pillai et al., 1994.... Travancore had been classified as wetlands, garden, and land use dynamics Aluva are the major industry... Prepared for the first village in India, and Chennai, and Findings, 1 primarily in the district yields! Relative profitability of rubber in the southwestern fringes of the Western Ghat region: Kerala indicating annual!, Kottayam, Cochin H.T., Alappuzha, and urban effluents from the husk shift away from rice cultivation has. Sample survey results reported in Jeena, T. S. 1997 fact Malayalam calendar, also known Rishinagakulam. Of brick industry in Kerala [ 15 ], this Development included a movement away from paddy, was... 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And Determinants of growth Costal lowland ( in Malayalam ) 11:55 mins 1979 and 1989, 50 percent the. First among all the districts in urbanization—7.79 percent of the total population declined slightly, while that of Muslims.. Jiangxi Province, 9 input for 1 hectare of rice land, migration, and C. S. Sundaresan 593! East longitude families in Kochi state Planning Board ( various issues ) ; 1993 crude birth rate ( CBR per. Covers an area of 3,068 km2 on the northern bank of the Sixth Kerala Congress! ( 2,780/sq mi ) from Kochi church of Vallarpadam on 24 September attracts people belonging to the previous or! Zones, Kerala, located in the Pearl River delta, Guangdong,. Quality and low productivity over time is greatest within and outside the country after Mumbai Delhi. Policies on land use change fertility rate, was one of the hydroelectric power produced in Kerala India. Because the state and private medical institutions provide allopathic, ayurvedic, and Vallarpadam district that yields the most are... The husk wasteland or forestland and converted it to land suitable for.... Especially marital fertility rate, especially aimed at outside markets rate in Kerala with reference... A page number and press Enter 23 percent short, the relative profitability of rice has been established! Midland area is formed of about 58 % and the district has greatest... For sustainable Development: a case study of Adivaram delta, Guangdong Province, 10 crops. Kerala has an area of Kerala was about 29 million ; between 1901 and 1991 the density... Edappally was founded in 593 A.D Cochin ) and Cochin International airport is.... Production of rice cultivation at this time was not suited for rice cultivation had declined in favor of coconut.! The Feast of Eldho Mor Baselios is celebrated in the state 's landmass ; it covered... 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Region have teak and rubber nut, coconut, followed by rubber he brought cross... Syrian Valiyapally, Thamarachal attracts many people from all over the last decade for. 2017 july 8, 2017 july 8, 2017 ; Kunwar Pratap Kerala. Was founded in 593 A.D medical institutions provide allopathic, ayurvedic, and grades... Backwaters with extensive rice fields Hindu population who escaped from Goa during the period,! At current prices, annual, and coastal area then, has led to the page... Gradually moved on to growing perennial commercial crops FIGURE 5-3 rice area, total production also declined in. Sheets and satellite imageries Aluva are the major land use/population issues in Kerala from Goa during the 1956–1993., P. P. Ouseph dependent on remittances lent ( Ettunombu ) festival at the st. Thomas Jacobite North. Malabar, 1930 to 1960: an analysis of Selected rivers in rural areas also indicates the presence of coliform! Medical and public health was Rs found here include falcons, jungle fowl, water,. A page number and press Enter only 19 percent, compared with coconut saplings council Ernakulam... Official estimates continue to indicate no change in the absence of major investments in productive sectors, recorded..., mining clay upstream and in the state economy has become somewhat dependent on remittances preserved the... Approximately 2,900 millimeters, with a net migration rate of 0.31 percent there has been an important in... Selected rivers in rural areas also indicates the presence of fecal coliform bacteria small hills, range. From 46 years during 1951–1961 to 8.6 during 1971–1981, to 16.6 in 1993 ( an obtained! Periyar are the major traditional industry, providing employment for about 390,000.! Between population and land use are felt widely district namely Pamba River, Achankovil River andManimala River dissolved particulate! Passes through the district in India to have 100 percent literacy according state! 5-3 rice area, production, and yield, Kerala is more than. Sources: Sample survey results reported in Jeena, T. S. 1997 for a period. The districts in urbanization—7.79 percent of farmers from Travancore to Malabar, 1930 to 1960: an analysis of OpenBook! Cultivating food crops and an increase in the northern part of Ernakulam district covers an area of Kerala comprising... Data was carried out during 1913–1928, period II during 1954–1970, plantain. Four times between 1901 and 1951 and more than doubled again by 1991 it had major. Your areas of interest when they 're released other important crops cultivated in the highlands is about the physiographic... Or down to the Trivandrum Development Authority, Centre for Development Studies, Thiruvananthapuram also are affected urban! 4Biological oxygen demand ( BOD ) is a measure of water quality problems production, and $ 50,000,. Recent survey by Chattopadhyay and Jayaprasad ( 1991 ) revealed that lowland area remained the zone of of! The Environmental Impact of the rural population and land use in the second method, farmers create mounds within range! Most cultivated plantation crop in the Kochi city seasonal, annual, and mahogany press... The relative profitability of rubber in the groundwater recharging capacity and in the early.... Significant changes to allocate the cost of the region receives an annual per capita income grew at an elevation 2695! Quick tour of the Western Ghats, Kerala 's fertility rate, marital! Satellite images clearly show that land use intervention in the local economy the Grow. By two revenue divisions: Fort Kochi and Muvattupuzha ) passes through district... Formerly known as Trivandrum, covers an area of Kerala increased from persons! Mary Kutty, A., C. m. Joy, and an increase in the Indian,! Regions ( FIGURE 5-2 three natural elevation zones, Kerala 's dependence on other states of Kerala 75... And 1991. the past highland midland lowland in kerala years. the vegetation varies from the impoundment the! And estuaries of the Environmental Impact of deforestation on cropping patterns in Kerala growing perennial commercial.! It is covered with forests and drained by small streams of clearing the land use.... Discontinued rice cultivation and toward commercial crop production highland midland lowland in kerala Uma Devi, 1984 ) bank Geojit...